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crystal was born when Bohemian-born Daniel Swarovski invented an automatic
cutting machine in 1892. In 1895 the Swarovski company was founded when he
established a crystal cutting factory in Wattens. Here he could take
advantage of local hydroelectricity for the energy-intensive grinding
processes he had patented.
Swarovski crystal contains
approximately 32% lead to maximize refraction. The Swarovski Crystal range
includes crystal sculptures and miniatures, jewelry and couture, home
decor, chandeliers, and beads and rhinestones for manufacturers and
In order to create a crystal that
allows light to refract in a rainbow spectrum, Swarovski coats some of its
crystals with special metallic chemical coatings. Aurora Borealis, or
"AB", is one of the most popular coatings, and gives the surface a rainbow
oil slick appearance. Other coatings include Crystal Transmission,
Volcano, Aurum, and Dorado. Coatings are applied to 50% of an object,
however some are coated two times, and thus are designated AB 2X, Dorado
The original Swarovski logo was an
edelweiss flower, but was replaced with the current swan logo in 1988. All
sculptures are marked with this logo. A recent development was the 2004
release of Xilion, a new copyrighted cut designed to optimize the
brilliance of Roses (crystal components with flat backs) and Chatons
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